https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093381. Three studies used mixed cohorts [25,26,27], one study included both male and female participants and reported sex results separately , one study included male players only , and three studies did not report the sex of the participants [22, 23, 28]. Markerless image processing technology to estimate 3D joint angles is valid  but not 3D head velocity .
Springer Nature. TT made contributions to the design of the study and interpretation of data. For example, Kawasaki and colleagues [27, 28] used initial displacement of the markers as the criteria for the time of impact; however, it was not specified which markers were used, nor the threshold value used to define initial displacement (i.e. All eligible studies included male rugby union players as participants. King D, Hume PA, Clark T. Nature of tackles that result in injury in professional rugby league. 2010;44(3):15967. Kerr and colleagues  observed a significant 40 increase in the tacklers knee joint angle at impact pre- compared to post-video tackling instruction intervention in skilled male and female college players (n=9), yet this was not observed in novice male or female players (n=5). marker set information, definitions of each segments mass and inertial properties, how the markers set are used to define the segments, specifications of the joint coordinate systems and 3D rotations [e.g. Google Scholar. Gardner AJ, Iverson GL, Quinn TN, Makdissi M, Levi CR, Shultz SR, et al. Joint angles were reported in the four eligible studies [26,27,28] and are presented in Table4. Tackle height is a critical aspect of the tackle to investigate. Studies reported a variety of joint angles including the neck [26,27,28], trunk [26,27,28], hip [25, 28], knee [25, 28], shoulder [27, 28] and ankle . One of the limitations of the current review was that limiting eligibility for inclusion to only peer-reviewed journal articles excluded some recent conference proceedings such as . Seminati E, Cazzola D, Preatoni E, Trewartha G. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.
The effect of walking speed on the gait of typically developing children. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Eur J Sport Sci. the reference condition) . s2, or G (acceleration due to gravity); and other variables measured were reported as either percentage (%), kilonewtons (kN), seconds (s), metres per second (m/s) or body weight (BW). However, recent developments in Global Positioning System monitoring which include the use of in-built accelerometers can provide information and data on these important force and velocity metrics. PubMed Central 2020;44(4):24562. Every eligible study captured 3D tackling data with a passive optoelectronic 3D motion analysis system with various sampling frequencies ranging from unknown  up to 500 Hz  in an indoor laboratory [22, 23, 25,26,27,28] or in an outdoor training environment on a rugby field . https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097912. statement and Match and training injuries in womens rugby union: a systematic review of published studies. 2018;46(10):251420. Impact in a tackle bag task was defined as the instant when the tackle bag horizontal velocity of the centre of the mass reached its highest velocity  or the initial displacement of the marker on the tackle bag . A tackler maintaining leg drive upon contact has been associated with a decreased risk of a sustaining a concussion [63, 64] and an increased capacity to reduce the progression of the ball carrier .
Four studies examined how modification of the tackle technique alters a players mechanics during a tackle. 2008;41(8):163950. Med Sci Sports Exerc. When a player performed a head-in-front shoulder tackle rather than a traditional shoulder tackle in this study, the tackler decreased their amount of neck flexion and shoulder external rotation. Sports Med. Br J Sport Med. He has received travel funding or been reimbursed by professional sporting bodies, and commercial organisations for discussing or presenting sport-related concussion research at meetings, scientific conferences, workshops and symposiums. Studies completed to date have sought to quantify the locomotion, speed and contact activities that take place in the game.
Waterloo: Wiley; 2009. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. It is well-known that speed alters kinematics and kinetics in other movements such as gait  and a change-of-direction task . Blyton SJ, Edwards S, Moghaddas D, de Zoete RMJ, Palazzi K, Oldmeadow C, et al.
Further, it must be stressed that the game of Rugby places demands on technical, tactical and psychological factors over and above those that can be described in a physical time-motion analysis. He has a clinical practice in neuropsychology involving individuals who have sustained sport-related concussion (including current and former athletes). 2017; Available from: https://www.world.rugby/development/player-numbers?lang=en. Some of the key findings across these studies are summarised below. When players used the same side leading leg during the tackle (i.e. J Biomech. McIntosh AS, McCrory P, Comerford J.
Technological advances in 3D motion capture technology offer the potential for in-game rugby-style tackle technique to be assessed in future research. Tanabe Y, Kawasaki T, Tanaka H, Murakami K, Nobuhara K, Okuwaki T, Kaneko K. The kinematics of 1-on-1 rugby tackling: a study using 3-dimensional motion analysis. 2018;36(6):67990. Could lowering the tackle height in rugby union reduce ball carrier inertial head kinematics?
One-on-one, front-on [22,23,24,25, 27] or side-on  contact between a tackler and a ball carrier was used in five studies [22,23,24,25, 27], while three studies used a tackler impacting a tackle bag or bump pad [24, 26, 28]. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion-part I: ankle, hip, and spine. Int J Sports Sci Coaching. Quarrie KL, Hopkins WG, Anthony MJ, Gill ND. Br J Sport Med.
Eligible studies were of moderate (n=1) or high (n=3) risk of bias, due largely to small participant numbers, study design, outcome limitations and the inclusion of questions within the bias of risk assessment not relevant to 3D motion studies that skewed the risk of bias score. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. For all 25 scores that were not agreed upon by the two raters, the risk of bias scores from the third reviewer were used to reach a consensus. Seay J, Selbie WS, Hamill J. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. This 3D spinal alignment could not be quantified in five studies [22, 23, 26,27,28] with their custom [26,27,28] or plug-in gait [22, 23] marker set. The ball carrier displayed a significantly higher head angular acceleration and change in angular velocity but not in linear head acceleration when contact by the tackler was made to their upper trunk, compared to mid/lower trunk tackle . Sasaki K, Sato H, Nakamura A, Yamamoto T, Watanabe I, Katsuta T, et al. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00222-6. Gabbett TJ, Jenkins DG, Abernethy B.
https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da781c. Passive optoelectronic motion capture systems were employed by all studies within this systematic review. Edwards, S., Lee, R., Fuller, G. et al. Within rugby codes, there are also age-related tackle technique differences , in addition to a range in skill level [33, 34], playing experience  and various demand contingent upon playing position . In: Payne CJ, Bartlett RM, editors. Accuracy of human motion capture systems for sport applications; state-of-the-art review. A significantly lower mean impact force of a tackler when tackling a tackle bag was shown in the stationary start condition in the non-dominant shoulder versus a dominant shoulder, and in the dominant shoulder in the stationary start condition versus the in-motion start condition . College and professional players forward trunk inclination angle at impact with a tackle bag was significantly influenced by the hip abduction angle of the leading leg and trunk rotation away from the contacted shoulder two steps prior to impact . Timana Tahu is an employee of the National Rugby League as a transitional officer working with Indigenous students. Part of Eligible studies investigated either one-on-one, front-on [22, 24, 25, 27] or side-on  contact between a tackler and a ball carrier or a tackler impacting a tackle bag or bump pad [24, 26, 28]. Google Scholar. Tierney and colleagues  found that when a ball carrier was tackled in a one-on-one front-on tackle, they experienced higher head angular acceleration and change in angular velocity in high compared to a low tackle. Hendricks S, Till K, den Hollander S, Savage TN, Roberts SP, Tierney G, et al. Validity of a trunk-mounted accelerometer to measure physical collisions in contact sports. Experimental task characteristics varied widely in the eligible articles (Table3). Med Sci Sports Exerc.
2020;54(10):56672. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Rugby W. Global rugby participation. Krosshaug T, Bahr R. A model-based image-matching technique for three-dimensional reconstruction of human motion from uncalibrated video sequences. Fitzpatrick AC, Naylor AS, Myler P, Robertson C. A three-year epidemiological prospective cohort study of rugby league match injuries from the European Super League. Kawasaki T, Tanabe Y, Tanaka H, Murakami K, Maki N, Ozaki H, et al.
2016;2(1):e000053. These data collection parameters were met for all but one study . https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c07b5b. California Privacy Statement, Coaching manuals present different tackle techniques between the rugby codes [31, 32]. When a player performed a head-in-front shoulder tackle rather than a traditional shoulder tackle in this study, the tackler decreased their amount of neck flexion and shoulder external rotation . Google Scholar. One study was categorised as moderate risk of bias  and six studies as high risk of bias. 2005;38(4):91929. McGinley JL, Baker R, Wolfe R, Morris ME. Knee flexion, but not hip flexion, was found to be altered in skilled, but not novice players, after watching a tackling instruction video . den Hollander S, Jones B, Lambert M, Hendricks S. The what and how of video analysis research in rugby union: a critical review.